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Hypertension is one of the significant risk factors of cardiovascular heart disease (CVD), commonly lowered by pharmacological therapy. Indeed, drugs like Captopril or Enalapril work as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, resulting in lower blood pressure in combination with a healthy lifestyle. Regardless of the effectiveness of ACE inhibitors, new natural active compounds have gained interest due to the secondary effects some of these drugs have on patients. Wine by-products, called wine lees (WL), are sustainable resources containing many phenolic compounds with the ability to lower blood pressure.
Wine lees (WL)
“The residue that forms at the bottom of recipients containing wine, after fermentation, during storage or after authorized treatments, as well as the residue obtained following the filtration or centrifugation of this product.”Â
This last statement is how wine lees are defined by the Council Regulation (EEC) NO. 337/79. Wine lees have multiple applications in different industries like cosmetics, food, and pharmaceuticals. Furthermore, these applications are due to their anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, antimicrobial, and cardioprotective properties. In addition, anthocyanins, flavonols, phenolic acids, and flavanols have been detected in WL.
A study with the objective to measure the WL functionality on lowering BP by inhibiting ACE was performed using rats. Furthermore, this study used four different types of WL derived from grapes of the CarinÃ±ena are in Zaragoza, Spain. The studied grape varieties were Cabernet, Garnacha, Mazula, Merlot, and Macabeo, the only white grape.
These WL from grapes were submitted to the detection and quantification of their phenolic compound. Consequently, the WL ACE inhibitory effects were quantified as well using an animal model.Â
The rats used in this model were spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) compared to normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). Furthermore, there were three different experimental designs:
- The first model: included SHR and evaluated the antihypertensive effects of WL from Cabernet, Mazulea, and Garnacha grapes. These WL were administered in a single dose of 5mL/kg of body weight. Compared with the WL, water and Captopril were used as a negative and positive control, respectively.
- The second model was performed in WKY rats, where 5ml/ kg of body weight of Cabernet WL was administered to discard any possible hypotensive effect and compared to water.
In these two first models, the systolic and diastolic blood pressure was measured before and 2, 4, 6, 8, 24, and 48h after treatment administration.
The third model was performed in SHR and intervened with a dose of Cabernet WL 5mL/kg body weight compared to water as a negative control.
Wine lee (WL) and ACE inhibition
The central action of antihypertensive drugs is the inhibition of the angiotensin-converting enzyme in the Renin-Angiotensin-Aldosterone system (RAAS). Therefore, it was important for the authors to determine the potential of each WL from the different grape varieties to inhibit the activity of ACE. The following list reports the inhibitory activity of each WL.
- Carnet WL= 55.69% Â± 1.92 %
- Garnacha WL= 44.16% Â± 2.54 %
- Mazuela WL = 50.70% Â± 8.10%
- Merlot WL = 28.76% Â± 0.34%
- Macabeo WL = < 10%
This report shows that those by-products derived from the production of Carbernet wine have the highest ACE inhibitory activity. In addition, red grape-derived WL has a powerful enzymatic inhibitory effect when compared to white grape WL.
Lowering blood pressure effects on WL in hypertensive rats.
The lowering effects of WL from Garnacha and Mazuela had no significant reduction of SBP or DBP. Additionally, the water treatment did not show any changes in BP of hypertensive rats, as suspected.Â
On the other hand, Cabernet WL (CWL) showed a similar antihypertensive effect to Captopril. In fact, these two treatments showed a maximum decrease after the first six hours of administration. Additionally, in comparison, CWL and Captopril had the potential to lower âˆ’36.4 Â± 3.4 and âˆ’38.8 Â± 4.6 mmHg for SBP and DBP, respectively.
It is essential to know all of our alternatives in a world of product placement, drug consumption, disease, and consumerism. CVD is the primary cause of death in Western countries. While the prevalence of HTN is exceptionally high since one in every four adults suffers from it. Nowadays, alternative measures to control high blood pressure and prevent CVD are part of the solution. Consequently, the use of every by-product derived from the processing of wine can become an alternative solution for our CVD issue, promoting a sustainable and healthy future. – Ana Paola RodrÃguez Arciniega, MS.
LÃ³pez-FernÃ¡ndez-Sobrino, RaÃºl et al. â€œACE Inhibitory and Antihypertensive Activities of Wine Lees and Relationship among Bioactivity and Phenolic Profile.â€Â NutrientsÂ vol. 13,2 679. 20 Feb. 2021, doi:10.3390/nu13020679
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The information herein on "Let me Treat you Right: Lowering Blood Pressure with Wine?" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.
Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.
We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*
Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.
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