Dysfunction of the immune system is the common denominator of diseases like Grave’s disease (GD), Hashimoto’s disease (HD), and celiac disease (CD). In addition, we can add Non-celiac wheat sensitivity to this equation. Furthermore, gut permeability caused by a damaged intestinal barrier can increase the passage of multiple pathogens. In turn, this phenomenon could result in an exacerbates immune reaction. Dysbiosis is also a common denominator of these conditions. A change in gut microbiota composition strongly influences micronutrient absorption and inflammation, affecting thyroid function.
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Humans exist in symbiosis with our gastrointestinal bacteria. Nutrition, breastfeeding, birth modality, disease, medication, and stress can influence and change our gut microbiota, creating dysbiosis throughout our life.Â
In terms of micronutrients, gut bacteria play a modulating role in synthesizing vitamins like vitamin K, Vitamin B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B12, and folic acid. Consequently, dysbiosis can influence the apparition of immune, digestive and mental disorders.
Gut-associated lymphatic tissue
Microbiota influences the development of the gut-associated lymphatic tissue (GALT). Furthermore, GALT contains more than 70% of the entire immune system, controlling the tolerance of self-antigens.
Regulatory T-cells (Tregs) are critical modulators of the immune response, and their number increases in the presence of elevated levels of short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). These SCFA promote the growth of healthy bacteria and are derived from dietary fiber, which shows the strong influence of nutrition and microbiota. In addition, higher levels of SCFA can lower the concentration of pro-inflammatory Th-17 cells and strengthen the tight junctions.
Common signs of immunodeficiency like reduction of T-helper cells and Treg differentiation are part of celiac disease, HT, and GD. Furthermore, this phenomenon is associated with bacterial overgrowth and increased intestinal permeability, reflecting elevated pro-inflammatory cells and a harmful impact on thyroid function.
Enzymatic conversion of T4 to T3 has also been located in the intestinal wall. Although this has only been studied in rats, it shows that microbiota can bind thyroid hormones.
Celiac disease and Non-celiac wheat sensitivity
Wheat consumption, specifically gliadin protein in gluten-containing products, promotes a CD4+ Tcell-mediated cascade. Following this first reaction, an elevation in cytokines promotes an inflammatory response leading to CD8 +T cells activation, destroying inflamed enterocytes. Furthermore, this action triggers B-cell that produce antibodies against gliadin, transglutaminase, and endomysium. This cascade ends up in an increased intestinal mucosa inflammation, villous atrophy resulting in malabsorption, intestinal permeability, and increased gastrointestinal discomfort.
On the other hand, and without the autoimmune feature, non-celiac wheat sensitivity (NCWS) can cause similar symptoms to those in celiac disease. Nevertheless, NCWS has an immune-related response coming from the innate immune system. Studies have shown increased activation of Toll-like receptors (TLR) and inflammatory markers like TNF-A occurring with NCWS.
Some of the nutrient absorption affected by these conditions are iron, vitamin D, and selenium. These nutrients are crucial for thyroid function.Â
In addition, the affected gut’s permeability leads to the penetration of pathogens to the immuno-reactive subepithelium, leading to autoimmunogenesis and inflammation. Zonulin plays the role of gut permeability modulator and can weaken the tight junctions of the intestinal barrier.
Autoimmune diseases are complex conditions with a common gastrointestinal feature. The role of gut permeability and dysbiosis can promote autoimmunogenesis and inflammation add up to the issue, promoting a situation that might be hard to control. In addition, the micronutrient deficiency promoted by the interaction of these mechanisms affects thyroid function and hormone synthesis. Functional or orthomolecular medicine provides a complete treatment by testing and not guessing. If all diseases start in the gut, treating dysbiosis, renewing and repairing the gut lining is the first thing we need to target.- Ana Paola Rdz. Arciniega, MS
Knezevic, Jovana et al. “Thyroid-Gut-Axis: How Does the Microbiota Influence Thyroid Function?.”Â NutrientsÂ vol. 12,6 1769. 12 Jun. 2020, doi:10.3390/nu12061769
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Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CCST, IFMCP*, CIFM*, CTG*
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The information herein on "The Role of Dysbiosis and Thyroid Function" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional or licensed physician and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.
Our information scope is limited to Chiropractic, musculoskeletal, physical medicines, wellness, contributing etiological viscerosomatic disturbances within clinical presentations, associated somatovisceral reflex clinical dynamics, subluxation complexes, sensitive health issues, and/or functional medicine articles, topics, and discussions.
We provide and present clinical collaboration with specialists from various disciplines. Each specialist is governed by their professional scope of practice and their jurisdiction of licensure. We use functional health & wellness protocols to treat and support care for the injuries or disorders of the musculoskeletal system.
Our videos, posts, topics, subjects, and insights cover clinical matters, issues, and topics that relate to and directly or indirectly support our clinical scope of practice.*
Our office has reasonably attempted to provide supportive citations and has identified the relevant research study or studies supporting our posts. We provide copies of supporting research studies available to regulatory boards and the public upon request.
We understand that we cover matters that require an additional explanation of how it may assist in a particular care plan or treatment protocol; therefore, to further discuss the subject matter above, please feel free to ask Dr. Alex Jimenez, DC, or contact us at 915-850-0900.
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Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, RN* CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
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