Introduction

The central nervous system’s main function is to make sure that the neuron signals are being transmitted all over the entire body. These neuron signals make sure that not only the body is functioning properly but the gut, the immune system, the endocrine system, and even the brain itself are doing their jobs. These neuron signals must have a bidirectional connection with the brain in order to make the body move, feel and sense things throughout a person’s day. When there are unwanted pathogens that enter the body and attach themselves to the neuron signals, they can travel to the brain and cause neurodegenerative diseases to develop over time if they are not treated. Luckily there are some therapeutic options like peptide therapy to help dampen the effects of neurological diseases in the brain. In this article, we will be taking a look at what are peptides, how they affect neurodegenerative diseases, and how they help the brain. By referring patients to qualified and skilled providers who specialized in neurological services. To that end, and when appropriate, we advise our patients to refer to our associated medical providers based on their examination. We find that education is the key to asking valuable questions to our providers. Dr. Jimenez DC provides this information as an educational service only. Disclaimer

 

Can my insurance cover it? Yes, in case you are uncertain here is the link to all the insurance providers we cover. If you have any questions, please call Dr. Jimenez at 915-850-0900.

What Are Peptides?

 

In the body, there are molecules and antibodies that make sure that the body is functioning properly. Research studies have shown that peptides represent a unique class of pharmaceuticals compounds that are the foundation of all cellular processes. Peptides have been on the “fringes” of medicine until recently. In the past, they had a few problems that made them unaffordable due to their high cost, limited availability, and their short half-lives. However, that changed as peptides became more Pharma driven, have improved the bioavailability, and have recombinant technology and genetic engineering. Other studies have shown that peptides have been receiving increased interest since they possess favorable tissue penetration and the capability to engage with endogenous receptors in the body. What this means is that peptides can be versatile tools to help release the active components from food protein sources and provide the body health benefits that it needs.

Peptides For Neurological Disorders

Since neurological disorders are selective and progressive in the brain, research studies have found that peptides can provide therapeutic mechanisms that may be effective in dampening the symptoms and slowing down the onset progression of neurodegenerative disorders. Other beneficial factors that peptides can provide to the body include:

Other research studies have shown that since peptides are small molecules that are composed of amino acids that are linked to peptide bonds, they have the ability to reach different locations in the body that are complicated to access and provide treatment to neurological disorders.


HCTP Therapy

Stem cells* or HCTP (human cellular tissue products) are a form of regenerative medicine that helps boost the body’s own natural healing process. Both international and nationally affiliated clinics and distribution organizations use HCTP to help repair and regenerate damaged cells, tissues, and organs back to their original state and function in the body. With more and upcoming research that informs individuals about the benefits of HCTP, many individuals can become pain-free and continue on their wellness journey.


GH & The Brain

 

GH receptor and GH (growth hormone) themselves are expressed widely in the brain and studies have shown that growth hormone replacement therapy can affect the cerebrospinal fluid levels for various hormones and neurotransmitters but also provide beneficial effects for cognitive function in the brain. Growth hormones have been reported to alter:

  • Neurogenesis
  • Myelin synthesis
  • Dendritic branching
  • Neural HCTP cells which are activated by GH

Growth hormones have also occurred in the hippocampus in response to a memory task since the cognitive domains are grouping them as either “crystallized” or “fluid” intelligence (short-termed or long-termed memory. Other studies have found that growth hormones can help with the development and function of the brain since growth hormones help with activating neural HCTP cells and downstream IGF‐1, IGF‐2. Several studies have shown a correlation between plasma IGF‐I concentrations and performance on tests of fluid intelligence, suggesting that GH may play a role in the maintenance of fluid intelligence.

 

IGF-1

Insulin‐like growth factor 1 (IGF1) is a polypeptide hormone that is structurally similar to insulin. It is central to the somatotropic axis, acting downstream of growth hormone (GH), and activates both the mitogen‐activated protein (MAP) kinase and PI3K signaling pathways. IGF-1 acts in almost every
tissue in the body to promote tissue growth and maturation through upregulation of anabolic processes. Studies have shown that IGF-1 is secreted by the liver and is transported to other tissues in the body while acting as an endocrine hormone. Since IGF1 expression levels decrease again later in life, low‐dose IGF1 treatment triggered a small increase in the differentiation of neuronal progenitors into neurons. While other studies have found that IGF1 signaling is key in promoting organized adult hippocampal neurogenesis due to the neurotrophic effects of IGF1 signaling, giving evidence for promotion of neurogenesis, development and maturation, myelination, prolonged survival, and resistance to injury, and the levels do decrease later in life.

 

Thymosin Alpha 1

 

Research shows that Thymosin Alpha 1 is a synthetic thymic peptide that naturally occurs in the thymus, while also being recognized to modify, enhance, and restore immune function in the body. Thymosin Alpha 1 contains 28 amino acids while promoting T cell differentiation and maturation in vivo and in vitro data while balancing the Th1/Th2 responses in the body. Other research studies have found that since the immune system plays an essential role in brain development, Thymosin Alpha 1 helps with neuronal plasticity and behavioral function as well as inhibiting viral replication as an antioxidant. This peptide also enhances dendritic cells and antibody responses while blocking steroid‐induced apoptosis of thymocytes with its anti-tumor effects plus providing protection against oxidative damage to the brain.

 

Conclusion

All in all, peptides are highly important for brain development and function as the central nervous system is responsible for transmitting neuron signals all throughout the entire body. When there are unwanted pathogens that start to attach themselves to the neuron signals, they can travel up to the brain and cause neurodegenerative disorders to the brain. Utilizing therapeutic treatments to help dampen the effects of neurodegenerative disorders and maintain the brain’s cognitive function, can help individuals continue on their wellness journey and be pain-free.

 

References

Dominari, Asimina, et al. “Thymosin Alpha 1: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.” World Journal of Virology, Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 15 Dec. 2020, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747025/.

Dominari, Asimina, et al. “Thymosin Alpha 1: A Comprehensive Review of the Literature.” World Journal of Virology, Baishideng Publishing Group Inc, 15 Dec. 2020, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7747025/.

F;, Nyberg. “Growth Hormone in the Brain: Characteristics of Specific Brain Targets for the Hormone and Their Functional Significance.” Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, U.S. National Library of Medicine, Oct. 2000, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/11013068/.

Laron, Z. “Insulin-like Growth Factor 1 (IGF-1): A Growth Hormone.” Molecular Pathology : MP, British Medical Journal Publishing Group, Oct. 2001, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1187088/.

Lee, Andy Chi-Lung, et al. “A Comprehensive Review on Current Advances in Peptide Drug Development and Design.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 14 May 2019, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6566176/.

Martínez-Villaluenga, Cristina, and Blanca Hernández-Ledesma. “Peptides for Health Benefits 2019.” International Journal of Molecular Sciences, MDPI, 6 Apr. 2020, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7178072/.

Tiwari, Shashi Kant, and Rajnish K Chaturvedi. “Peptide Therapeutics in Neurodegenerative Disorders.” Current Medicinal Chemistry, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 2014, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/24533803/.

Wrigley, Sarah, et al. “Insulin-like Growth Factor 1: At the Crossroads of Brain Development and Aging.” Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience, Frontiers Media S.A., 1 Feb. 2017, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5285390/.

Yadav, Asmita, et al. “Peptide-Based Therapy for Neurological Disorders.” Current Protein & Peptide Science, U.S. National Library of Medicine, 27 Dec. 2021, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/34544337/.

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Disclaimers

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The information herein on "Peptides For Neurodegenerative Disorders" is not intended to replace a one-on-one relationship with a qualified health care professional, or licensed physician, and is not medical advice. We encourage you to make your own healthcare decisions based on your research and partnership with a qualified healthcare professional.

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Dr. Alex Jimenez DC, MSACP, CIFM*, IFMCP*, ATN*, CCST
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